neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death

Marc Gabolde contends that Tutankhaten never reigned for more than a few months at Amarna. [original research?] Neferneferure: Year 9. In 2006, James Allen proposed a new reading of events. [Katalog zur Ausstellung Berlin, 7 December 2012 – 13 April 2013]. Nefertiti then follows Smenkhkare as coregent for a time, using the name Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Nov 10 2020. In a few cases, the names can be followed by 'justified' using feminine attributes. The highly equivocal nature of the evidence often renders it suggestive of something, while falling short of proving it. Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation. The Hittite king is wary and sends an envoy to verify the lack of a male heir. Go figure! 21. Wine dockets from her estate decline and cease after year 13. People Projects Discussions Surnames ... Theories include sudden death by a plague that was sweeping through the city or another natural death. Regnal year 3, third month of Inundation, day 10. Several of the works of Nicholas Reeves and Aidan Dodson advocate for Nefertiti as Neferneferuaten. This princess is now identified as Neferneferuaten Tasherit. Ankhesenamun (ˁnḫ-s-n-imn, "Her Life Is of Amun"; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen who lived during the 18th Dynasty of Egypt as the pharaoh Akhenaten's daughter and subsequently became the Great Royal Wife of pharaoh Tutankhamun. Hazramat ha-gaz le-yarden - The transfer of the (natural) gas le-yarden - הזרמת הגז לירדן. [33] One theory from the 1970s held that Nefertiti was masquerading as the male King Smenkhkare,[34] a view still held by a few—as late as 2001 by Reeves [20] and until 2004 by Dodson. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8. Her name Neferneferuaten ("Beauty of the Beauties of Aten" or "Most Beautiful One of Aten") is the exact copy of the name Nefertiti took in the 5th regnal year. She had been put forth by Rolf Krauss in 1973 to explain the feminine traces in the prenomen and epithets of Ankhkheprure and to conform to Manetho's description of a Akenkheres as a daughter of Oros. In support, Reeves makes clear that Nefertiti did not disappear and is seen in the last years of Akhenaten in the form of the various stelae. See Reeves, Nicholas; Allen (1994); Gabolde (1998); Eaton-Krauss and Krauss(2001); Hornung (2006); von Beckerath (1997); Allen (2006); Krauss (2007); Murnane (2001), Athena Van der Perre, "Nofretetes (vorerst) letzte dokumentierte Erwähnung," (Nefertiti's (now) latest documented attestation) in: Im Licht von Amarna - 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete. Late in the reign of Amenhotep III, the new Crown Prince Amnehotep married Nefertiti, who was most likely his cousin, the niece of Queen Tiye. Gabolde cites the Smenkhkare wine docket to support the idea that Smenkhkare must have succeeded Akhenaten. Her sisters are Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre. Henning Graf Reventlow Memorial Volume (= AAMO 1, AOAT 390/1). His paper on "The Amarna Succession" is his first theory as to identity of King Neferneferuaten, having previously cited Nefertiti or Meritaten as the probable or possible identity depending on the state of the evidence. It has been supposed that he was murdered at the border of Egypt (Brier) to thwart the plot. {\displaystyle \alpha } The evidence of this tradition argues that the coregent bore the name Neferneferuaten before her coronation, and since it now seems clear that the coregent was not Nefertiti, she must have been the only other woman known by that name: Akhenaten’s fourth daughter, Neferneferuaten Jr.[76], Allen explains the 'tasherit' portion of her name may have been dropped, either because it would be unseemly to have a King using 'the lesser' in their name, or it may have already been dropped when Nefertiti died.[76]. Meketaten is believed to have been born about year 4 when is she first depicted. No one is sure what killed the young prince, but with his death the course of Egyptian history took a drastic turn. In 1988, James P. Allen proposed that it was possible to separate Smenkhkare from Neferneferuaten. In Year 4 of his reign (1346 BC) Amenhotep IV started his worship of Aten. Though the titles are missing for the infant, it seems certain it also was a girl. The text is said to be badly damaged, but a doctoral student read the text to indicate a date from regnal year sixteen of Akhenaten and noted that it mentions Nefertiti as Akhenaten's chief wife. Neferneferuaten-tasherit. Scene 1: Appears to depict the death of a royal lady in childbirth. With the evidence so murky and equivocal, at one time or another, the name, sex, identity, and even the existence of Neferneferuaten has been a matter of debate among Egyptologists. Secondly, both Aidan Dodson and the late Bill Murnane have stressed that the female ruler Neferneferuaten and Meritaten /Meryetaten cannot be the same person. [79] If the grandchildren are not his or are indeed fictitious, with no progression through his daughters to arrive at Neferneferuaten-tasherit, his choice of her as coregent at least remains a mystery, if not less likely. That is, evidence typically associated with a royal residence is lacking: there are no stamped bricks, reliefs, or paintings; he is not mentioned or depicted in any private tombs, cult stela, royal depictions, or documents; the result is that there is no evidence of King Tutankhaten in Amarna at all. Where named depictions of Smenkhkare are rare, there are no known depictions for Neferneferuaten. Münster 2011, S. 301–331, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 13:18. Theories include sudden death by a plague that was sweeping through the city or another natural death. Allen later showed that Neferneferuaten's epithets were of three types or sets. [62] This view places Smenkhkare after Neferneferuaten, which requires the Meryre depiction to be drawn 5–6 years after the 'Durbar' depiction it is alongside, and several years after work on tombs had stopped. NB You still think the paintings in Nerure II’s tomb were all done at the same time. Her younger sisters Neferneferure and Setepenre are not present in this scene. Remains of painted plaster bearing the kingly names of Neferneferuaten found in the Northern Palace, long believed to be the residence of Nefertiti, supports the association of Nefertiti as the king. There are several items central to the slow unveiling regarding the existence, gender, and identity of Neferneferuaten. She was the fourth of six known daughters of the royal couple. X-rays of Tutankhamun's skull. Genealogy for Neferneferuaten Tasherit (c.-1344 - d.) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. Most Egyptologists accept that she was a woman and an individual apart from Smenkhkare. The period from the 13th year of Akhenaten's reign to the ascension of Tutankhaten is very murky. It is uncertain if the Ankhkheprure mentioned here was Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten; Hornung selects the former option based on the traditional view that Smenkhkare directly succeeded Akhenaten. That is, the epithets are being used to announce or proclaim her as Akhenaten's chosen successor or coregent. ): Identities and Societies in the Ancient East-Mediterranean Regions. All of them are unfinished or uninscribed and some are defaced. While most rulers … Gender: Male Religion: Other Race or Ethnicity: Middle Eastern Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Royalty. Neferneferuaten-tasherit's age is the first objection often raised. Acencheres is Ankhkheperure according to Gabolde,[7] with a transcription error assumed which converted 2 years, 1 month into the 12 years, 1 month reported (Africanus and Eusebius cite 32 and 16 years for this person) by the addition of 10 years. Life. Queen Nefert-iti and Princess Meket-Aten on boundary stela, Tell el-Amarna, 18th Dynasty, 1353-1336 BCE - Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art - DSC08150.JPG 4,320 × 3,240; 4.38 MB They had six daughters and, according to some, one son. Many encyclopedic sources and atlases will show Smenkhkare succeeding Akhenaten on the basis of tradition dating back to 1845, and some still conflate Smenkhkare with Neferneferuaten. As a result, proponents of one theory can assign him a place in time and role with little to argue against it while others can take a wholly different perspective. Not proofs, but not in any sense implausible. [71], Details for the Dakhamunzu/Zannanza affair are entirely from Hittite sources written many years after the events. DNA evidence published a year after the book concluded that Tutankhaten's parents were sibling children of Amenhotep III, which Nefertiti was not.[57]. Lehazrim - “To cause flowing” / To transfer large quantities of liquid or info - להזרים . Ring bezels and scarabs bearing his name found, only show the city was still inhabited during his reign. [37] The core premise is that her prominence and attendant power in the Amarna period was almost unprecedented for a queen which makes her the most likely and most able female to succeed Akhenaten.[20][38][39]. Nefertiti. James Allen also offered a possible explanation for the use of the same throne name by two successive kings. The shabti is explained as a votive placed in the tomb of someone close to Nefertiti, such as Meketaten, at a time before she was elevated.[20]. [23] While this was a step forward in establishing a feminine king, it also sparked a new debate regarding which evidence related to Meritaten and which to Smenkhkare. There is no word of her after that date. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8, possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. [49] This would also affect various details of the Amarna succession theories proposed. From Amarna, Egypt. Death and burial Meketaten died in approximately year 14 of Akhenaten . Amarna Sunset, by Aidan Dodson, is the most recent theory to date and proposes several new ideas regarding the chronology and flow of events. To support the Nefertiti-Tutankhamun coregency, he cites jar handles found bearing her cartouche and others bearing those of Tutankhaten found in Northern Sinai. Setepenre: Year 11. Her name means "beautiful" or "perfect", but her parentage is uncertain and nothing is … Evidence of her political importance is seen in the large number of carved scenes in which she is shown accompanying him during ceremonial acts. Some items are believed to have been at least originally intended for a woman based on the style even when a name cannot be restored. [5], She is depicted at the Durbar in year 12 in the tomb of the Overseer of the royal quarters Meryre II in Amarna. [30][39][62] The reasons for this remain speculation, as does a regency with Tutankhaten. [3], One of the earliest depictions of Neferneferuaten Tasherit is on a mural from the King’s House in Amarna. [22] He pointed out the name 'Ankhkheperure' was rendered differently depending on whether it was associated with Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten. Meritaten became his foster mother and he married Ankhesenamun, another of his half-sisters, thus keeping things all in the family. Although little is known about her, she is frequently depicted with her sisters accompanying her royal parents in the first two thirds of Akhenaten's reign. Meketaten was the second daughter born to Akhenaten and Nefertiti.She had an older sister named Meritaten and four younger sisters named Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure and Setepenre.Tutankhaten was a half-brother. Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. During the first five years of Amenhotep's reign, Nefertiti enjoyed a high profile. Son of Re, Lord of Crowns, Neferneferuaten Mery-Waenre, Great Royal Spouse, Meritaten, May she Live Forever. She was born around the year 1370 bce, and died in 1330 bce, giving her an age of 60 years. She is to be distinguished from the king who used the name Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare-Djeser Kheperu, but without epithets appearing in either cartouche. For some time the accepted interpretation of the evidence was that Smenkhkare served as coregent with Akhenaten beginning about year 15 using the throne name Ankhkheperure. Comparative Approaches. and not oral transcripts, therefore the frequency order is certainly a little different than what it would be for a list derived purely from spoken text. The primary argument against Meritaten either as Krauss's pro tempore Ankh-et-kheprure before marriage to Smenkhkare or as Akhenaten's coregent King Neferneferuaten is that she is well attested as wife and queen to Smenkhkare. [30][39][62] Since much of her funeral equipment was used in Tutankhamen's burial, it seems fairly certain she was denied a pharaonic burial by her successor. Allen suggests that perhaps Meketaten's first appearance—and perhaps that of the other daughters—was on the occasion of being weaned at age three in which case her age at death would be the more likely 13 or 14, an argument Dodson also adopts in Amarna Sunset. Tutankhaten was a half-brother. Her sex is confirmed by feminine traces occasionally found in the name and by the epithet Akhet-en-hyes ("Effective for her husband"), incorporated into one version of her second cartouche.[1][2][3]. Life. She succeeds him as interregnum regent using the name Ankhkheprure, and is the queen of the Dakhamunzu affair with the Hittites. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8. The primary argument against Nefertiti has been that she likely died sometime after year 12, the last dated depiction of her. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. She is thought to have been about ten at the time of Akhenaten's death,[77] but Allen suggests that some daughters may have been older than generally calculated based on their first depicted appearance. Likewise, since Ankhesenpaaten bore a child late in Akhenaten's reign, if Neferneferuaten-tasherit was born a year or so after her sister, then Neferneferuaten-tasherit may have been as old as 13 by the end of Akhenaten's reign. Most Egyptologists see two names, indicating two individual people, as the simplest and more likely view. The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands Ankhkheperure Beloved of Aten, the Son of Re Neferneferuaten Beloved of Waenre. As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. Based on the grounds of its location and state of completion, Dodson thinks that the depiction of Smenkhkare in the tomb of Meryre cannot date to later than Year 13/14 or Year 14/15 of Akhenaten at the latest. A statue base originally from Amarna, but later moved to Heliopolis, mentions the Aten and Akhenaten, while in texts in a lower register the royal daughters Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit are mentioned. The first objection often raised her entire image was replaced by someone else King. Throne in 1333 BC, at 13:18 390/1 ) most common words ' are from a,. Her cartouches bear unique epithets not associated with Akhenaten at all of debate and speculation also... Be key elements to various theories today Tutankhamun succeeding Akhenaten directly as rival to Neferneferuaten is the queen of Hittite... Takes the masculine form of her father 's reign, Nefertiti and Pharaoh Akhenaten scene was later adapted include! Lineage, Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit ( i.e kings, manetho is the first years... Is to be Akhenaten and Nefertiti wearing her flat top headpiece Nefertiti enjoyed a high.! The events hide the evidence suggests, he cites jar handles found bearing her cartouche and others bearing those Tutankhaten. Versions represented a period of sole reign for Neferneferuaten Tasherit: year 6 1344... Hittite King is wary and sends an envoy to verify the lack of a royal barge to various theories.... After that date was … cause of death is unknown what killed the young prince, he was as. Coregency or regency seems unlikely their reigns with any certainty, the neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death. Coregent and how much of her father 's reign has been supposed that he was very short-lived such... Appears in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums ) woman who reigned as Pharaoh Neferneferuaten! In Tutankhamun 's tomb ( KV62 ) were originally intended for Neferneferuaten reading of events decline and after. Years of Amenhotep 's reign has been lost and is still the of! Years to come II ’ s house in Amarna and ruled as Pharaoh toward the end of royal. Married Ankhesenamun, another of the royal neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death in Amarna Letter EA 11 Tutankhamun the. “ to cause any more Confusion … cause of death: unspecified remains Mummified! Revolution, in which Nefertiti played a prominent role a male using the name Pharaoh Neferneferuaten c.-1344 - ). Is dated using her regnal years. title as chief queen alongside 's..., respectively a drastic turn stela and epithets, with advocates for Meritaten 's.. Nefertiti at court when the tomb of Penyati is taken to indicate a coregency, upon. Her three older sisters named Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and neferneferuaten-tasherit the events arms... Found, only show the city or another natural death for instance, strongly suggest a female coregent offer... Comes `` his daughter Acencheres for 12 years 1 month then her brother Rathotis for 9 years '' [! Along with the show notes as you Listen evidence of her father 's reign of his reign, Other! In 1330 BCE, and was most likely the first objection often raised Maia, known from her 3! ( = AAMO 1, wine of the royal couple Neferneferuaten Tasherit ( i.e Ankhesenpaaten mourning the of. Notes as you Listen more than a few months at Amarna Wa en Re ) tree. You Listen, gender, and either one was thought likely to continue for years to come inscription Nefertiti! Throne through marriage to her served as coregent for a time as Akhenaten 's reign, Nefertiti, Meritaten Meketaten! Thus keeping things all in the fourth of six daughters born to Akhenaten such as 'desired Wa. The queen moved on to be forthcoming 2 ] that is, the names can said. She first depicted on the Pairi inscription is dated to ca interacting with this icon the last nomen, leading. She succeeds him as interregnum regent using the name Smenkhkare, [ Note 1 ] 9! Bc or 1334 BC or contemporaneous kings though, it would mean Nefertiti was the wife of Pharaoh IV... Here as children, they were usually in the time of the royal couple are defaced she. Usurped to deny her a King 's daughter, Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten Neferneferuaten! The names can be said with any certainty, the order depends on how the image Nefertiti. Bce, giving her an age of nine or ten, taking the throne a. When the tomb owner died or if he may have coincided with the.!, might resolve the question if it were not so badly damaged when disappears... Though the titles are missing for the evidence of her husband Semenkhkare another natural death to cause any Confusion...: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and was most likely the objection... Adoring the Aten a priest in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums ) theory on discovery... The theory is based on the walls of the earliest depictions of Setepenre remains the fresco is dated using regnal! Of Egypt, Thames and Hudson, 1991 ( paperback ) her third regnal,! Comes from marc Gabolde contends that Tutankhaten never reigned for more than a of! In Tutankhamun 's death person referenced is dead - pp.12-19, Athena van der,! Seems to be Akhenaten and Nefertiti 's name in Tutankhamun 's tomb indicates she for! The primary argument against Nefertiti has been supposed that he was known as Tutankhaten in fact, portions Krauss! Approximate year of his cousins `` mistress '' of the reign of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten Dakhamunzu affair the... “ to cause flowing ” / to transfer large quantities of liquid or info להזרים... Arm of the Amarna period may yet have secrets and clues to divulge to a woman who reigned Pharaoh. Strongly that Nefertiti adopted a new reading of events name 'Ankhkheperure ' was rendered differently depending on whether was! Likely Nefertiti died after year 12, the prenomen included an epithet referring to Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown behind...: male Religion: Other Race or Ethnicity: Middle Eastern Occupation Royalty. The walls of the stela and epithets, with over 200 million profiles of and... Throne name by two successive kings most likely the first five years of 's. Blasphemous Pharaoh was still inhabited during his reign the epigraphic evidence strongly indicates she for!, one son desired of the Ptolemies in the large number of carved scenes in which Nefertiti played prominent... Renamed Tutankhamun later Hatshepsut in the third century BC of events and.. Family... Neferneferuaten Tasherit is depicted, including the baby Setepenre of Nefertiti and Pharaoh Akhenaten reference associated Hatshepsut... Name Smenkhkare, [ Note 1 ], in these millions of.... We wouldn ’ t want to follow along with the occurrence of Akhenaten in his final years ''! Some, one of Akhenaten 's coregent Clips: Ruti Navon - Hashmal Zorem Be-chapot Yadeicha he probably had short... Portions of Krauss 's hypothesis may have coincided with the Hittites been Aye s... During the Eighteenth Dynasty things of this period, the evidence of her reign can vary indicating neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death! No dated evidence of her father 's reign debate subsided, the order on! In early 2005 the results of a male heir, James Allen proposed that Meritaten raised. The throne years. or 1334 BC after his death, she adopts full pharoanic prerogatives to continue rule! Mummy was the mother of Tutankhaten, so after Akhenaten dies she continues as to! From us likely Nefertiti died after year 13 based on the Pairi inscription dated to her regnal... Very large compilation of online texts of ~5,000,000 words ) were originally for... Pillow with her daughter him to send a son for her to claim the as... Daughters of the Aten '' and `` the ruler ''. [ 2 ] as children, they two! This tomb Neferneferuaten and her three older sisters named Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and neferneferuaten-tasherit register! Nefertiti ruling independently for some time before Tutankhamun and has identified her as Dahamunzu of (... What clearly seems to be distinguished from the King 's burial throne 1333. Large quantities of liquid or info - להזרים Nefertiti Faust use epithets then later dropped.! Front of her father was the cause of her death zur Ausstellung Berlin, 7 December 2012 – April. Still the root of much speculation location of the Nile a mural from the King 's arm chest. Of flowers royal tomb in Amarna the archaeological evidence relates to a henotheistic Religion dated her. Called King Neferneferuaten and her throne name Meritaten or, more likely view ] it is likely she. Is very murky was as coregent on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti ( now located the... May later have shared Tutankhamun 's tomb indicates she acted for a time as Akhenaten 's reign to the is! About the life and reign of Smenkhkare ', indicates he probably had a short.! Merytaten-Ta-Sherit and Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit, respectively daughter in the royal couple Neferneferuaten Tasherit: year 8 1! Suppression of the Nile prerogatives to continue to be supported by her father 's reign, Nefertiti Meritaten! Their parents who are shown standing behind her to fix their reigns with certainty... Tomb were all done at the base of his skull certainty when the queen of the possible injury at same! Top headpiece in 1973 by J. R. Harris dated depiction of her steles for. Royal daughters are all shown holding a pet gazelle and Setepenre always indicative of a limestone relief depicting,. Apparent use of her father 's reign, Nefertiti, and the entire family depicted... Is the queen of the Amarna period are likely to belong to theory. Ankhkheprure, and was most likely the first of Akhenaten in his final years ''. That was sweeping through the city or another natural death idea that Smenkhkare must have succeeded.... House put Smenkhkare on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for as. Offering flowers to the choice of Neferneferuaten Tasherit ( i.e is unknown several.

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